Oxford Handbook
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Cross-Border Cooperation. The meaning of Cognitive and Normative Expectations for the Emergence of Global Research and Development Cooperation
Drawing on Niklas Luhmann’s theory of social systems, we analyse the importance of different styles of expectation (cognitive and normative) for global research and development cooperation in two industries: the pharmaceutical industry and the software industry. In our study, we find that contrary to Luhmann’s prediction in 1971, the normative expectation style still plays a vital role for the cooperative deals under examination. The second result of our study is that non-state mechanisms such as reputation, resource-dependency and trust are highly important for the stabilization of normative expectations in global business transactions. The role of the state-based legal system is reduced to stabilizing few, albeit crucial, normative expectations.
Nr. 049/2007
Thomas Dietz
Holger Nieswandt

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