|This articles deals with the phenomenon of spatially relocated border control away from the territorial borderline. The theoretical starting point for this analysis is the control dilemma in which liberal states of the OECD world are situated. On the one hand, they strive for restrictive policies against unwanted border-crossers and, on the other hand, they are partly committed to protecting the human or refugee rights of these very same individuals. An overview of to where control is shifted in order to avoid this liberal dilemma is given and it systematically accounts for all the places where control instruments are relocated (before, at or behind the border). A case comparison based on expert interviews conducted in the US, Finland, and Austria is provided and illustrates that first distinguishable strategies of implementation have been embarked upon. The US has unilaterally tried to exert control before departure in the home countries or, alternatively, directly before crossing the national border. In contrast, the two European countries have early started to cooperate widely with other countries and private actors in order to intervene in the movement of an individual long before he or she actually approaches the border. Despite very different circumstances in these three countries regarding the urge to install new kinds of control measures, especially the last decade has been characterized by a striking convergence in how the countries employ relocated border control instruments.
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