|The German sectors of secondary and higher education witnessed far-reaching changes in the last decade. Comprehensive reforms were introduced that essentially altered the educational structure as well as the procedures in policy making. These reforms were massively influenced by international initiatives – namely the OECD’s PISA study and the Bologna Process accompanied by the EU Commission. Both “IOs” succeeded in impacting German education reforms by applying various governance instruments that can be described as soft governance. Albeit multiple veto points were present in Germany and traditional German principles of education were contrary to the promoted ideals, the IOs’ initiatives resolved these blocking effects of national transformation capacities and had a substantial impact on German education policy making.
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